Open Educational Resources



DOST-STII Science and Technology Academic Research-Based Openly Operated KioskS (STARBOOKS)

Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines

Socioeconomic Research Portal for the Philippines

Tekno-Aklatan (by The National Library of the Philippines)

The Philippine Journal of Linguistics (PJL)

Foreign Multidisciplinary

Definition of Terms

  • Resources – In the library context, resources refer to journals, books, or electronic databases. They come in both physical and electronic forms (Operational Definition).


  • Electronic resources – Electronic resources (e-resources) are materials in digital format that may be accessed electronically. They may refer to paid subscriptions to electronic books (eBooks) and journals (referred in this document as Subscribed E-Resources), or open-access resources curated by the library. (Operational Definition).


  • Open Educational Resources – Open Educational Resources (OER) are teaching, learning and research materials in any medium – digital or otherwise – that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions (UNESCO).


  • Copyright – Copyright refers to the protection given to intellectual works. In simpler terms, copyright means that the original creators of work and anyone they give the authorization to have the exclusive right to reproduce the latter (Republic Act No. 8293). Please refer to Memorandum No. OVPAA 2020-91 – Guidelines for Using or Incorporating Copyrighted Works Into Course Packs for the First Semester AY 2020-2021; FAQ Regarding Faculty Copyright Over Course Packs to learn more about copyright limitations in the context of academic consumption.


  • Fair Use – Fair use refers to what the law allows in terms of using someone’s intellectual property. Under fair use, the use of copyrighted work such as for classroom instruction, the conduct of a study, and other related purposes is not copyright infringement (Republic Act No. 8293).


  • Licensing Agreement – A licensing agreement outlines the acceptable terms by which a party can use another work/ownership. Using electronic resources, access, and reproduction are governed by the agreement between the library and the vendor (Operational Definition). 1.10. Reproduction – In the context of fair use of educational resources, reproduction refers to any duplication or reproduction of resources for classroom instruction and research (Republic Act No. 8293).